Nails Ch2 – Anatomy and Physiology

Why is the study of anatomy, physiology, and histology important to the nail technician?

Answer: The study of anatomy, physiology, and histology is important to the nail technician because:

  • Understanding how the human body functions as an integrated whole is a key component to understanding how a client’s skin and nails may react to various treatments and services.
  • You must be able to recognize the difference between what is considered normal and abnormal for the body in order to determine whether specific treatments and services are appropriate.
  • This knowledge will help determine a scientific basis for the proper application of services and products.
  • You will be responsible for performing safe and effective manicure and pedicure services aided by your knowledge of hand and foot nerves, bones, and muscle structure.
  • You will be able to perform manipulations involving the hands, forearms, feet, and lower legs safely and effectively as a result of your understanding of bones, muscles, nerves, and circulation.

Define anatomy, physiology, and histology.

  • Anatomy is the study of the structures of the human body and the substances these structures are made of. It is the science of the interconnected detail of organisms, or of their parts.
  • Physiology is the study of the functions and activities performed by the body’s structures.
  • Histology, also known as microscopic anatomy, is the study of the structure and composition of tissue.

List and describe the parts of the cell.

Answer: The parts of the cell include protoplasm, nucleus, organelles, cytoplasm, mitochondria, and the cell membrane. The protoplasm is a colorless, jellylike substance found inside cells in which food elements are present. The nucleus is the dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell. The organelles are small organs. Cytoplasm is the part of the protoplasm that exists outside of the nucleus and inside the cell wall. Mitochondria take in nutrients, break them down, and create energy for the cell. The cell membrane is the part of the cell that encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave.

Define metabolism and list the two phases of cell metabolism and their purpose.

Answer: Metabolism is a chemical process that takes place in living organisms, through which the cells are nourished and carry out their activities. Anabolism, called constructive metabolism, is the process of combining smaller molecules to build larger and more complex molecules. During this process, the body focuses on storing water, food, and oxygen for a later time when these substances will be needed for cell growth, reproduction, or repair. Catabolism is the phase of metabolism in which larger, more complex molecules are broken down within the cells to create smaller, simpler molecules. As a result of this breakdown, energy is released so that it may be used or stored for later use.

List and describe the functions of the four types of tissue found in the human body.

  • Connective tissue binds together, protects, and supports the various parts of the body. Examples include bone; cartilage; ligaments; tendons; fascia, which separates muscles; liquid tissue, such as blood and lymph; and fat, which is also called adipose tissue. Adipose tissue gives smoothness and contour to the body while protecting internal organs and insulating the body.
  • Epithelial tissue is a protective covering on body surfaces. Skin, mucous membranes, the tissue inside the mouth, the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs, and glands are all examples of epithelial tissue.
  • Muscle tissue contracts and moves the various parts of the body.
  • Nerve tissue carries messages through the central nervous system to control and coordinate all bodily functions. Nerve tissue is composed of specialized cells known as neurons, which make up the nerves, brain, and spinal cord.

What is an organ?

Answer: An organ is a structure composed of specialized tissues that allow it to perform specific functions.

Name the 11 body systems and their main functions.

  • Circulatory: controls the circulation of blood.
  • Digestive: breaks down food into smaller particles to absorb nutrients or for excretion.
  • Endocrine: affects growth, development, sexual activities, and normal regulator processes of the body.
  • Excretory: purifies the body by eliminating waste material.
  • Integumentary: the skin; the largest organ of the body and the first line of defense.
  • Lymphatic or immune: protects the body from disease.
  • Muscular: covers, shapes, and supports the skeletal tissue.
  • Nervous: controls and coordinates all other body systems inside of the body and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently.
  • Reproductive: produces offspring and passes on the genetic code from one generation to another; differentiates between the sexes.
  • Respiratory: enables breathing, supplying the body with oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide.
  • Skeletal: forms the physical foundation of the body; 206 bones that are connected by movable and immovable joints.

List the primary functions of the skeletal system.

Answer: The five primary functions of the skeletal system include:

  • Giving shape and support to the body
  • Protecting various internal structures and organs
  • Serving as attachments for muscles and act as levers to produce body movement
  • Helping produce both white and red blood cells (one of the functions of bone marrow)
  • Storing most of the body’s calcium supply, as well as phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium

Name and describe the three types of muscular tissue found in the body.

  • Striated muscles, also called skeletal muscles, are attached to the bones and are voluntary or consciously controlled. Striated (skeletal) muscles assist in maintaining the body’s posture and protect some internal organs.
  • Nonstriated muscles, also called smooth muscles, are involuntary and function automatically, without conscious will. These muscles are found in the internal organs of the body, such as the digestive or respiratory systems.
  • Cardiac muscle is the involuntary muscle that is the heart. This type of muscle is not found in any other part of the body.

What are the two types of nerves?

Answer: The types of nerves are the sensory nerves and motor nerves.

Describe the nerves that affect the legs and feet.

Answer: The nerves of the leg and foot are:

The tibial nerve, a division of the sciatic nerve, passes behind the knee. It subdivides and supplies impulses to the knee; the muscles of the calf; the skin of the leg; and the sole, heel, and underside of the toes.

The common peroneal nerve, also a division of the sciatic nerve, extends from behind the knee to wind around the head of the fibula to the front of the leg, where it divides into two branches. The deep peroneal nerve, also known as the anterior tibial nerve, extends down the front of the leg, behind the muscles. It supplies impulses to these muscles and also to the muscles and skin on the top of the foot and adjacent sides of the first and second toes. The superficial peroneal nerve, also known as the musculocutaneous nerve, extends down the leg, just under the skin, supplying impulses to the muscles and the skin of the leg, as well as to the skin and toes on the top of the foot, where it is called the dorsal nerve or dorsal cutaneous nerve.

The saphenous nerve supplies impulses to the skin of the inner side of the leg and foot.

The sural nerve supplies impulses to the skin on the outer side and back of the foot and leg.

Name and briefly describe the three types of blood vessels found in the body.

Answer:  The three types of blood vessels are arteries, capillaries and veins:

  • Arteries are thick-walled, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillaries.
  • Capillaries are tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins. They bring nutrients to the cells and carry away waste materials.
  • Veins are thin-walled blood vessels that are less flexible than arteries. They contain cup-like valves that prevent backflow and carry blood containing waste products from the capillaries back to the heart and lungs for cleaning and to pick up oxygen.

What are the chief functions of blood?

Answer:  Blood performs the following critical functions:

  • Carries water, oxygen, and food to all cells and tissues of the body.
  • Carries away carbon dioxide and other waste products to be eliminated through the lungs, skin, kidneys, and large intestines.
  • Helps equalize the body’s temperature, thus protecting the body from extreme heat or cold.
  • Works with the immune system to protect the body from potentially harmful bacteria or toxins.
  • Seals leaks found in injured blood vessels by forming clots, which prevent further blood loss.

Define the lymphatic/immune system.

Answer:  The lymphatic/immune system is made up of lymph, lymph nodes, the thymus gland, the spleen, and lymph vessels that act as an aid to the blood system. Lymph is a colorless, watery fluid derived from blood plasma that has filtered through the capillary walls into the tissue space.

Name and discuss the two main types of glands found in the human body.

Answer: The two types of glands are:

  • Exocrine glands, or duct glands, produce a substance that travels through small tube-like ducts. Sweat and oil glands of the skin belong to this group.
  • Endocrine glands, or ductless glands, such as the thyroid and pituitary glands, release secretions called hormones directly into the bloodstream, which, in turn, influence the welfare of the entire body. Hormones, such as insulin, adrenaline, and estrogen, stimulate functional activity or secretion in other parts of the body.

What are digestive enzymes?

Answer: Digestive enzymes are chemicals that change certain kinds of food into a form that can be used by the body. The food, now in soluble form, is transported by the bloodstream and used by the body’s cells and tissues.

What body organs work as a part of the excretory system?

  • Kidneys
  • Liver
  • Skin
  • Large intestine
  • Lungs

What happens with each breath?

Answer: With each breathing cycle, an exchange of gases takes place. For instance, during inhalation, or breathing in through the nose or mouth, oxygen is passed into the blood. During exhalation, or breathing outward, carbon dioxide (collected from the blood) is expelled from the lungs.

Define the integumentary system.

Answer: The integumentary system is made up of the skin and its various accessory organs, such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails.

Define the reproductive system.

Answer: The reproductive system performs the function of reproducing and perpetuating the human race