SE Ch.12 – Makeup Essentials

1. List the primary and secondary colors.

Primary: red, yellow, and blue. Secondary: orange, green, and violet.

2. What are complementary colors?

Complementary colors are the colors directly opposite each other on the color wheel, used to create a distinct contrast.

3. Define warm and cool colors.

Warm colors have a yellow undertone and consist of a range from yellow through orange to red. Cool colors, which have a blue undertone range from greens through blues, to violets and blue-reds.

5. What are the three main color selection steps used to choose makeup colors?

There are three main factors to consider when choosing colors for a client: 1. Skin color 2. Eye color 3. Hair color

6. What colors are used to tone down red?

Green or yellow are used to tone down red. Green is used to cover and block red, and yellow is used to neutralize or soften red.

7. Why is analyzing face shapes an important skill?

The face shape can help determine hair styles, the size and shape of hats, glasses, or jewelry, and for understanding how to help a client accentuate or de-emphasize features related to face shape.

8. What are the seven basic face shapes?

The seven basic face shapes are: Oval, round, square, rectangle (oblong), triangle (pear-shaped), heart, and diamond.

9. List the specific categories of products used in makeup application.

  • Foundation
  • Mineral Makeup
  • Concealer
  • Face Powder
  • Blush •Highlighter
  • Eyeshadow
  • Eyeliners
  • Eyebrow color
  • Mascara
  • Eye makeup removers
  • Lip color

10. Excluding makeup, list the supplies and accessories necessary for makeup application.

The supplies and accessories necessary for makeup application are: Makeup palettes, Brow Comb, Brushes, Cape, Cleaning agents, Client Chart, Cotton swabs, Hair Clips or Headband, Lash Comb, Lash Curler, Mirror, Mixing cups, Paper drapes, Sharpeners, Spatulas, Sponges, Tissues, Tweezers, Wands.

From Table 12-4: EPA-registered disinfectant, small scissors, hand towel, gloves, client chart, face charts, and skin care products (cleanser, toner, moisturizer, lip conditioner)

11. What are the types of makeup brushes, what is each kind used for, and how should they cared for?

  • Powder Brush: used for blending and to apply powder or blush
  • Foundation Brush: used for applying and blending liquid, cream and paste foundation
  • Blush Brush: for applying powder blush
  • Concealer Brush: used to apply concealer around the eyes, on blemishes, etc.
  • Kabuki Brush: used in a circular motion to apply and blend powders
  • Eyeshadow Brush: used for applying eyeshadows
  • Eyeliner Brush: used to apply liner to the eyes
  • Angle Brow Brush: for use on the eyebrows or for eyeliner
  • Lash and Brow Brush: comb-like side is used to remove excess mascara on lashes, the brush side is for brows
  • Lip Brush: used to apply lip color
  • To clean: A commercial cleaner can be used for quick cleaning. A gentle shampoo, liquid soap, or brush solvent should be used. Brushes should always be put into running or still water with ferrule pointing downward to avoid water removing glue holding bristles in place. Rinse after cleaning and avoid pulling on bristles. Reshape and lay flat to dry.
  • To disinfect: Brushes must be cleaned and disinfected properly after each client with liquid soap and an EPA-registered disinfectant. Rinse, dry, and cover brushes with a towel to keep them clean while drying. Once dry, put them in a clean, closed covered container or drawer.

12. List safety measures that should be followed when applying makeup to avoid product contamination.

  • Wash your hands before touching or applying makeup.
  • Do not touch product contents with your fingers.
  • Do not touch open products with previously used applicators (double dipping). Remove products with disposable spatulas and put onto clean palette.
  • When using pressed powders, scrape powders with a clean spatula onto clean palette or tissue before applying.
  • Never apply lipstick, gloss, or eyebrow colors directly onto client from container or tube.
  • Never apply mascara directly onto client’s lashes from the container.
  • If product is accidentally contaminated, follow supervisor’s directions for disposal.

13. List questions you should ask your client during a makeup consultation.

  • What are some of your needs and expectations today?
  • Will you be attending a special occasion?
  • Describe your makeup use.
  • How much time do you spend applying makeup?
  • What areas of concern would you like to focus on?
  • What are your favorite colors?
  • Do you have any makeup issues (irritations, allergies)?

14. What is contouring or shading used for?

Contouring (shading) uses color that is darker than the skin tone to shade, or minimize, a specific area, define cheekbones, and make areas appear smaller and recede.

15. Where on the face could you apply a highlighter?

Highlighter is used just under the eyebrow and on any area that you want to bring out, lighten, or draw attention to, such as the temple or above the top of the cheekbone.

16. How do you measure the ideal eyebrow shape?

The ideal eyebrow shape is measured by using three lines:

  • A vertical line measuring from the inner corner of the eye upward. This is where the eyebrow should begin.
  • A line from the outer corner of the nose to the outer corner of the eye. This is where the eyebrow should end.
  • A vertical line from the outer edge of the iris of the eye upward while the client looks straight ahead. This is ideally where the highest part of the arch should be.

17. Why is it important to get as much information as possible about the event when applying makeup for special events?

You will need to know whether an event is planned for daytime or evening to determine the lighting conditions and what style of makeup is appropriate for the type of event.

18. What are the important details to consider when planning bridal makeup?

When planning bridal makeup, consider the bride’s color preferences, the type of makeup she wants, what the gown looks like, and the wedding day timeline, paying particular attention to the starting time for makeup application.

19. What is high-def makeup? How is it different from ordinary makeup?

High-def makeup (primers, foundations, and powders) is formulated with super-fine micro-particles that blend into the skin to provide a flawless complexion and contains photochromatic pigments that react with all types of lighting, both artificial and natural.

20. What are the benefits of airbrushing.

  • Hygienic, long-lasting, friction- and water-resistant, yet simple to remove
  • More efficient and faster to apply than traditional makeup
  • Lightweight, natural, and provides a flawless look

21. Who can benefit from camouflage makeup?

Camouflage makeup is beneficial for postoperative patients, persons with congenital effects or scarring, or persons experiencing illness or injury.

22. Name and describe the two types of artificial eyelashes.

Band (strip) lashes are eyelash hairs on a strip that are applied with adhesive to the natural lash line. Tabs are small clusters of three or four lashes on one point of attachment. Individual lashes are separate artificial eyelashes that are applied on top of the lashes, one lash at a time.

23. What ingredient found in lash tint products should not be used?

Aniline derivatives (coal-tar based) should not be used.

24. How long do lash extensions last, and how best can they be applied so they will last as long as possible?

Lash extensions last for approximately two months (the life cycle of the natural lash). Work gently around the lash area and they will last longer.

25. Define permanent cosmetic makeup.

Permanent cosmetic makeup technique deposits colored pigment into the upper reticular layer of the dermis.

26. What is a test shoot?

A test shoot is a photo-industry term describing a photo shoot where everyone on set works free of charge to produce a fresh creative image, which is then made available to all participants for self-promotion.

27. Why is marketing yourself as a makeup artist important and how can you go about it?

Marketing yourself as a makeup artist is important to build a following, and show prospective clients why they might want to hire you. Some of the methods are offering free consultations, calling on various clients and handing out business cards or brochures, creating a good portfolio of images featuring your best work and showing it as often as possible, attending bridal fairs and placing ads in bridal publications, and taking advantage of online social networks.

28. List factors to keep in mind when promoting retail services.

  • Choose a line you like working with and feel comfortable recommending to your clients.
  • Consider the education and support that the company may offer.
  • Choose lines that have quality assurance with a stable company that offers an assortment of makeup options
  • Let your client know which products you are using and make them available afterwards.
  • Have attractive product displays accessible to your clients with testers and single-use applicators to avoid contamination.