Foundations Ch 7 – Electricity

Define the two types of electric current.

Direct current (DC) is a constant, even-flowing current that travels in one direction only and is produced by chemical means. Alternating current (AC) is a rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction, that is produced by mechanical means.

What are at least five steps to take for electrical safety?

  • All the electrical appliances you use should be UL certified.
  • Read all instructions carefully before using any piece of electrical equipment.
  • Always register electrical appliances with the manufacturer so that you will be notified of any safety recalls immediately.
  • Disconnect all appliances when not in use; pull on the plug, not the cord, to disconnect.
  • Disconnect all electrical appliances prior to cleaning them.
  • Never poke hairpins or wires through any part of an appliance, including lint screens. •Inspect all electrical equipment regularly.
  • Keep all wires, plugs, and electrical equipment in good repair. Do not use cords that have exposed wiring in any part of the cord or where it attaches to the appliance.
  • Use only one plug in each outlet; overloading may cause the circuit breaker to pop. If more than one plug is needed in an area, use a power strip with a surge protector.
  • Avoid contact, for both you and your client, with water and metal surfaces when using electricity and do not handle electrical equipment with wet hands or while standing on a wet floor.

Briefly describe three electrical modalities used in beauty and wellness services.

Answer:

  • Direct current (DC) is a constant, even-flowing
  • Galvanic current is a constant DC with a negative and positive pole, which is reduced to a safe, low-voltage level. Galvanic current produces chemical changes when passed through body tissues and fluids and is used to create chemical and ionic reactions in the skin.
  • Microcurrent is an extremely low level of electricity that is directed only to the specific area being treated and that does not travel throughout the entire body. Microcurrent can be used for iontophoresis, firming, toning, and soothing the skin and can help to heal inflamed tissue.
  • Tesla high-frequency current is characterized by a high rate of oscillation that produces heat. It is commonly called the violet ray and is used for both scalp and facial treatments. Tesla current does not cause muscular contractions but creates either stimulating or soothing effects.

Explain the difference between electromagnetic radiation, visible light, and invisible light.

Electromagnetic radiation refers to all the forms of energy in the electromagnetic spectrum, including radio wave, microwaves, light waves (including both visible and invisible light), X-rays, and gamma rays.  Visible light is the light we can see and makes up just 35 percent of sunlight. Invisible light is the light at either end of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the naked eye – it includes infrared on one end and ultraviolet on the other.

  • Galvanic current is a constant DC with a negative and positive pole, which is reduced to a safe, low-voltage level. Galvanic current produces chemical changes when passed through body tissues and fluids and is used to create chemical and ionic reactions in the skin.
  • Microcurrent is an extremely low level of electricity that is directed only to the specific area being treated and that does not travel throughout the entire body. Microcurrent can be used for iontophoresis, firming, toning, and soothing the skin and can help to heal inflamed tissue.
  • Tesla high-frequency current is characterized by a high rate of oscillation that produces heat. It is commonly called the violet ray and is used for both scalp and facial treatments. Tesla current does not cause muscular contractions but creates either stimulating or soothing effects.