SE Ch.2a – Anatomy and Physiology Pt.1

2. Summarize cell metabolism and its purpose.

A chemical process that takes place in living organisms., converting nutrients to energy, eliminating waste.

3. List and describe the functions of the four types of tissue found in the human body.

  1. Connective Tissue: Supports, protect, and binds together other tissues of the body.
  2. Epithelial Tissue: Protective lining on cavities of the body and surfaces of organs.
  3. Muscle Tissue: Contracts and moves various parts of the body.
  4. Nerve Tissue: Carries messages through the central nervous system to control and coordinate all bodily functions.

4. What are organs?

Organs are a collection of tissues that have an identifiable structure that perform specific functions.

5. Name the body systems and their main functions

  • Integumentary: Largest organ of the body, first line of defense against infection and water loss. Regulates temperature, perceives sensation, produces vitamin D, and has absorption capabilities.
  • Skeletal: Forms the physical foundation of the body; consists of the bones and movable and immovable joints.
  • Muscular: Covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue; also contracts and moves various parts of the body; consists of muscles.
  • Nervous: Carries messages through the central nervous system, controlling and coordinating all bodily functions.
  • Circulatory: Controls the steady delivery of the blood through the body; works with the lymphatic channels.
  • Immune/Lymphatic: Protects the body from disease by developing resistances and destroying disease-causing toxins, foreign material, and bacteria.
  • Endocrine: Affects growth, development, sexual activities, and normal regulatory processes of the body; consists of specialized glands.
  • Reproductive: Performs the function of producing children and passing on our genetics from one generation to another; differentiates between the sexes.
  • Respiratory: Enables breathing, supplies the body with oxygen, and eliminates carbon dioxide as a waste product.
  • Digestive: Breaks down food into smaller and smaller particles to absorb nutrients or for excretion.
  • Excretory: Refers to elimination of waste matter.

6. Explain why knowledge of each body system is important to esthetics.

  • Integumentary: As largest organ in the body, learning its functions and work of accessory organs is a critical component to a skin care therapist’s success.
  • Skeletal: Important for protecting your own body mechanics when working, as well as knowing physical landmarks when providing treatments, including makeup applications.
  • Muscular: Important when doing massage and performing electrical treatments; also important to understand muscle movement to prevent repetitive motion fatigue when you are performing treatments.
  • Nervous: Nerves control the muscle movements of the face.
  • Circulatory: The health of the circulatory system affects skin tissue health. Circulatory issues are often contraindications and precautions to treatments.
  • Immune/Lymphatic: To be effective, many treatments rely on the response from the lymphatic system.
  • Endocrine: Hormones excreted by the endocrine system have a significant effect on the skin and an understanding of that function will help when recognizing the need to refer a client for a medical evaluation.
  • Reproductive: Hormonal influences with puberty, pregnancy, perimenopause and menopause make significant demands on the skin that require knowledge in order to provide a sound treatment.
  • Respiratory: Adequate oxygenation of the tissue allows for optimum cell functioning. The respiratory spread of infection affects safety and sanitation.
  • Digestive: Good nutrition allows optimum functioning of all body systems.
  • Excretory: Functions to eliminate toxic substances that can affect other body system functions.

7. Name five accessory organs to the skin.

Oil glands, sweat glands, sensory receptors, nails, hair.

8. List the primary functions of the skeletal system.

Give shape and support to the body. Protect various internal structures and organs. Serve as attachments for muscles and act as levers to produce body movement. Help produce both white and red blood cells. Store most of the body’s calcium supply as well as phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium.

9. Identify the bones in the skull, cranium, face, neck, chest, and arms and hands and their location.

Refer to Figures 2-8a to 2-11.

  • Bones of the cranium: The cranium is made up of eight bones: occipital bone, two parietal bones, frontal bone, two temporal bones, ethmoid bone, sphenoid bone forms the sides of the eye socket.
  • Bones of the face: The bones of the face include two nasal bones, two lacrimal bones, two zygomatic bones, two maxillae, mandible.
  • Bones of the neck: The main bones of the neck are the following: hyoid bone, cervical vertebrae.
  • Bones of the chest: The bones of the trunk or torso are comprised of: thorax, ribs, scapula, sternum, clavicle.
  • Bones of the arms and hands: The humerus, ulna, radius, carpus, metacarpus, phalanges are the bones of the arms and hands.

10. List the primary functions of the muscular system.

The muscular system covers, shapes, and supports the skeletal tissue. It can contract and move various parts of the body.

11. Name the three parts of a voluntary muscle.

The origin is the more fixed part of the muscle closest to the skeleton, which flexes but remains stationary (does not move).

  • The belly is the middle part of the muscle.
  • The insertion is the part of the muscle that is the movable attachment and farthest from the skeleton.

12. Identify how muscle tissue can be positively influenced in an esthetic treatment.

Massage (hand or mechanical vibrations)

  • Electrical therapy current (See Chapter 10, Facial Machines, for additional information on high-frequency current, galvanic current, or microcurrent.)
  • Light rays (infrared light, light-emitting diode [LED])
  • Dry heat (heating lamps or heating caps)
  • Moist heat (steamers or moderately warm steam towels)

13. Identify and explain the muscles of the scalp.

Four muscles of scalp: frontalis, occipitalis, and two temporalis muscles. Esthetician is most concerned about the frontalis- muscle that raises eyebrows, draws scalp forward, and causes wrinkles in forehead.

Identify and explain the muscles of the eyebrow.

Answer: Corrugator- muscle that draws eyebrow down and wrinkles forehead vertically. Orbicularis oculi- ring muscle of eye socket; closes eyes. Levator palpebrae superioris- thin muscle that controls eyelid and can be easily damaged during makeup application.

Identify and explain the muscles of the ear.

Answer: Three muscles of ear are called the auricularis muscles. Work together to move the ear upward, forward, or backward.

Identify and explain the muscles of the nose.

Answer: Procerus lowers eyebrows and causes wrinkles across bridge of nose. Nasalis- two-part muscle which covers nose and includes the transverse part and the alar part, which flair nostrils.

Identify and explain the muscles of the mouth.

Answer: Buccinator– thin, flat muscle of cheek between upper and lower jaw that compresses cheeks and expels air between lips. Triangularis– muscle extending alongside chin that pulls down corners of mouth. Mentalis– muscle that elevates lower lip and raises and wrinkles skin of chin. Orbicularis oris- flat band around the upper and lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers, and wrinkles lips.

Identify and explain the muscles related to chewing.

Answer: Main muscles of mastication coordinate to open and close mouth and bring jaw forward or backward. Sometimes referred to as the chewing muscles: masseter and temporalis.

Identify and explain the muscles of the neck.

Answer: Platysma- broad muscle extending from chest and shoulder muscles to side of chin. Responsible for lowering lower jaw and lip. Sternocleidomastoid (SCM)- muscle extending alongside of neck the ear to collarbone. Acts to rotate head from side to side and up and down.

Identify and explain the muscles that attach the arms to the body.

Answer: Latissimus dorsi: Broad, flat superficial muscle covering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back, controlling the shoulder blade and the swinging movements of the arm.

Pectoralis major and pectoralis minor: Muscles of the chest that assist the swinging of the arm.

Identify and explain the muscles of the shoulder and arm.


  • The trapezius muscle covers the back of the neck, shoulders, and upper and middle region of the back; shrugs shoulders and stabilizes the scapula.
  • The biceps muscles produce the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm; they lift the forearm, flex the elbow, and turn the palms outward.
  • The deltoid is a large, triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body.
  • The triceps is a large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm.

15. What do the muscles of the hand do?

Provide flexibility and strength to open and close the hand and fingers.

16. Identify and explain the functions of

  • Abduction occurs when muscles draw a body part, such as a finger, arm, or toe, away from the midline of the body or of an extremity. In the hand, abduction separates the fingers.
  • Adduction occurs when muscles draw a body part, such as a finger, arm, or toe, inward toward the median axis of the body or of an extremity. In the hand, adduction draw the fingers together
  • Flexion is when muscles move to pull the body part toward the core of the body, such as when the biceps of the arm are activated toward the body.
  • Extension is when muscles straighten. When the wrist, hand, and fingers form a straight line, for example.
  • Supination is when muscles rotate. For example, in the forearm, the radius turns outward and the palm upward.
  • Pronation is when muscles turn inward. For example, when the palm faces downward.